Topics in US History:
Native American Culture and History
2. Summarize the viewpoints of climbers and Native people regarding the climbing of Devil's Tower
3. How do european views of land and religious bias play into the controversy?
4. Do you think the voluntary ban on climbing is enough to accommodate both sides? If so, why? If not, why not, and what do you think should be done instead?
5. How does the issue of land ownership affect the spiritual use of the Newark Earthworks? What do you think should be done in this case, and why? Be specific.
6. Summarize the Makah whaling controversy, and defend your position on whether or not endangered animals should be allowed to be used or hunted for spiritual purposes by Native people
2. How does the oral history of the Akimel O'Odham support these views?
3. How does the Wi:gida ceremony show examples of cultural diffusion? How does it and the creation narrative of the Akimel O'Odham relate to the history of the O'Odham in the Sonoran Desert?
4. Describe the characteristics of traditional Tohono O'Odham lifestyle and agriculture
5. Describe how non-Indian farmers tried to intensify agriculture in the late 1800's, and what the consequences were
6. What was the Winters Doctrine, and how did it relate to the O'Odham struggle for water?
7. How did the Akimel O'Odham differ from the Tohono O'Odham in the pre contact period?
8. How did wheat transform Akimel O'Odham society? What caused wheat production to stop, and what were the consequences?
9. What were the consequences of the Coolidge Dam for the Akimel O'Odham?
10. What have the problems with trying to maintain farming for the Akimel O'Odham since the building of the dam? How have they reacted?
2. Explain what the consequences of allotment and termination were
3. How is development different from other federal policies?
4. If you were part of creating a new federal policy in regards to Native nations, what would it be and why? How would it work? Use specific information from the class to back your proposal up (2 PTS.)
2. How is race socially constructed?
3. How does racialization differ from racial formation?
4. Define the 'out-group homogeneity effect', and explain how it relates to racial formation
5. Describe the characteristics of minority groups
6. How does prejudice differ from discrimination?
7. Describe each of the forms of racism
8. How does white privilege affect peoples' perceptions about race and racism?
9. What are the psychological and sociological theories of why racism exists?
10. Describe the criticisms of the assimilation perspective
2. What was the Marshall Doctrine, and how did it adapt the original Doctrine of Discovery into US Law? How was this further extended in 1831?
3. Describe the 4 factors that led to the colonization of the Americas
4. How did the tribute and encomienda systems set up by Columbus work?
5. How did the Indian slave trade lead to the African slave trade?
6. In what other ways did european contact affect the world? Be specific.
7. Why do many history textbooks write heroic biographies of Columbus and omit much of the facts about his exploits?
8. What are the examples of othering and cognitive dissonance in Columbus and other europeans' treatment of the Native people?
2. What would the significance be if Kennnewick Man was indeed 'Caucasoid'?
3. Why is it not likely that he was in fact "Caucasoid'?
4. How does the eventual realization that Kennewick Man is Native American highlight the conflict between science and Native beliefs?
...also The Bering Strait Controversy Workout (DUE Fri. 12/4 as well):
1. What is the conventional story of Native American origin? Why has it been the standard anthropological explanation?
2. What were the early religious explanations of Native American origin?
3. Why did Thomas Jefferson endorse the Bering Strait migration theory?
4. What caused anthropologists to push the date of entry into the Americas back to 15,000 years?
5. Explain how archaeological finds conflict with the Bering Strait migration theory
6. Why do many Native people reject DNA testing?
7. What would the actual migration from Siberia to America have been like? Why do anthropologists believe people undertook this journey?
8. What is the 'overkill hypothesis', and what evidence exists to counter it?
9. How can oral histories be considered accurate?
10. In your own words, what should be done in order to amend the conflict between Native Americans and scientists with regards to their origin? Use specific examples from the text.
2. Describe how farming methods differed among each of the agricultural regions
3. Describe, in general, the characteristics of each of the 8 culture areas in the lower 48 states region
4. Summarize the examples of cultural diffusion from this handout
Here is an excellent map of all the Native cultures of the United States region, with their actual names for themselves (good for your projects)
2. How is Columbus viewed differently by different groups of people?
3. Based on the article, do you believe that Columbus Day should be celebrated as-is, with the name changed, or abolished altogether, and why?
4. Why do people continue to believe in the myth of the first Thanksgiving story? Why are they not taught the facts?
5. How do you think the celebration of Thanksgiving would be different if the story was taught from an accurate perspective, and why?
6. Describe why the Crazy Horse Memorial is considered controversial
News Article on Portland Changing Columbus Day to Indigenous Peoples' Day this week
Crazy Horse Memorial Official Website
2. Why did the U.S. government sponsor him hiring Native actors in his show?
3. How did the Wild West Show cement the stereotypes of Native Americans in popular culture?
4. In what ways did the Wild West Show perpetuate the stereotypes of the 'noble savage' and the 'vanishing Indian'? Be specific.
2. How does "The Museum of the Plains White Person" satirize the issues Native people have with archaeologists and museums? Use specific examples.
3. How do both of these articles satirize ethnocentrism?
2. Why do many people not believe that his hypothesis is correct?
3. How do Turner's ideas conflict with the Hopi's own cultural norms, beliefs, and society? (2 PTS.)
2. Why was he described as the "Last Yahi"? What impact did that have on how society viewed him and Native people?
3. Why is the repatriation of Ishi's remains significant, both to Native people and to the way Indians are portrayed?
...also, Scientific Racism Workout (DUE Fri. 9/4):
1. Why did european and euroAmerican scholars believe Native Americans were inferior?
2. Why have Native Americans resented archaeologists?
3. What did Samuel Morton try to prove, and how? Why was his work inaccurate?
4. Why are Native artifacts and remains displayed in museums seen as offensive to Native people?
5. What is NAGPRA, and how does it work? What does it mean for Native people?
6. What are some of the issues still facing NAGPRA?
2. What is cultural relativism, and how is it different from ethnocentrism?
3. How does the dominant culture relate to cultural hegemony?
4. Describe how the media influences culture
5. Describe each of the ways in which cultures change
2. How does a society as diverse as the U.S. still share a common culture?
3. In what ways is culture learned?
4. What are symbols, and what role do they play in shaping culture?
5. Define the Sapir-Worf hypothesis, and state why most scholars think it's only partially correct
6. Describe how language can be used to reinforce power or social inequality
7. Define 'norms', and state the differences between implicit and explicit norms
8. What's the difference between folkways, mores, and taboos? How are they enforced?
9. What are beliefs, and how do they hold a culture together?
10. What are values, and how do they relate to peoples' behavior in a society?